trattato di maastricht

sottoscritto il 7 febbraio 1992 dai 12 Stati membri della Comunità Europea nella città di Maastricht ed entrato in vigore il 1º novembre 1993, dopo la ratificazione dei Parlamenti degli Stati membri, il Trattato di Maastricht amplia i poteri della CE; fissa i tempi e i modi dell'unificazione economica e politica dell'Europa; decide la realizzazione di una banca centrale. Title I, Common Provisions, establishes the European Union (EU) on the foundation of the three, already partially merged, European Communities: the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Soft cover. [17], Germany had considered a Deutschmark zone extending only to her more immediate and convergent neighbours: the Benelux countries and possibly Denmark. Without consulting with Karl Otto Pöhl, President of the Bundesbank, Kohl accepted the deal. The Treaty rules that "every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union". Britain had signed up to the ERM in 1990 as a token of the government's commitment to control inflation (then running at three times the rate of Germany). Works related to Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union at Wikisource, This article is about one of two founding treaties of the European Union. This aims to provide the public with a high level of safety by: This gives every national of an EU country the right to: It was signed on 7 February 1992 and entered into force on 1 November 1993. Attraverso l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, la creazione di un'unione economica e monetaria e l'estensione dell'integrazione europea a nuovi settori, la Comunità entra in una dimensione politica. Il trattato di Maastricht si poneva come obiettivo da raggiungere entro il 1999 la creazione di una moneta comune unica (euro) e di una Banca centrale europea. Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union, Presidency of the Council of the European Communities, Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Treaty establishing the European Defence Community, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, "EC Leaders at Sea Over Danish Rejection: Europe: Vote against Maastricht Treaty blocks the march to unity. Trattato di Maastricht Trattato sull’Unione Europea firmato a Maastricht il 7 febbraio 1992 dagli allora 12 Paesi membri della Comunità Europea (Belgio, Danimarca, Francia, Germania, Gran Bretagna, Grecia, Irlanda, Italia, Lussemburgo, Paesi Bassi, Portogallo, Spagna), entrato in vigore il 1° novembre 1993. It amends the EEC's Treaty of Rome constitution, renaming it the European Community to reflect the Union's broader ambition. In Ireland, the Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution, allowing the state to ratify the Treaty, was approved in a referendum held on 18 June 1992 with the support of 69.1% of votes cast. [38] The Treaty, however, proposed no significant departures in these areas. "[10], In the United Kingdom parliament ratification did not command a clear majority. The resulting compromise faced what was to be the first in a series of EU treaty ratification crises. convergence of national economic policies (from 1 January 1994); sets out criteria on inflation, levels of public debt, interest rates and exchange rates countries must meet before adopting the euro; develop human resources to ensure a high and sustainable level of employment; integrate people excluded from the labour market. Following the accession of a further twelve states, ten from the former Eastern Bloc – Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia – plus Cyprus and Malta, and an aborted Treaty on a European Constitution, Maastricht was more comprehensively revisited. La cittadinanza europea assegna il diritto di With limited leeway granted in exceptional circumstances, the obligations are to maintain: 1. On 16 September 1992 the British government had been forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), after a failed and costly attempt to keep the pound above its mandated exchange rate limit. increased legislative powers for the European Parliament; more majority voting when EU governments adopt legislation. The treaty was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany, and it came into force on 1 January 1958. In September 1992, a referendum in France narrowly supported the ratification of the treaty, with 50.8% in favour. The twelve members of the European Communities signing the Treaty on 7 February 1992 were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The EU inherited many of its present responsibilities from, and the membership of the European Communities (EC), which were founded in the 1950s in the spirit of the Schuman Declaration. In both cases, Member States are to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]",[5] but otherwise cooperate independently of Community institutions. The following timeline outlines the legal inception of the European Union (EU)—the principal framework for this unification. It is the result of a combined effort on the part of the General Secretariat of the Council and of the Commission. This groups the traditional activities, working and decision-making procedures of the 3 original EU organisations: Common foreign and security policy (2nd pillar), Cooperation on justice and home affairs (3rd pillar). Il Trattato di Maastricht introdusse inoltre il concetto di cittadinanza europea, di cui godono tutti i cittadini degli stati membri dell'Unione. However, the price of German cooperation was widely perceived as German dictation of the terms. Amendments incorporate (as detailed in attached protocols) a staged progression toward monetary union including the price-stability-first criteria for adoption of the single currency and for the operations of the prospective European Central Bank (ECB). Insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors. Against the background of the end of the Cold War and the re-unification of Germany, and in anticipation of accelerated globalisation, the treaty negotiated tensions between member states seeking deeper integration and those wishing to retain greater national control. The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the 12 member states of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). Provided that all Member States ratify, it rules that the Treaty should come into force on 1 January 1993. In Britain the Maastricht rebellion drew on the experience of Black Wednesday. [31], The Treaty dedicates the EU central banking system to price stability, and gives it "a degree of independence from elected officials" greater even "than that of its putative model, the German Bundesbank". (1) The United Kingdom withdraws from the European Union and becomes a third country (non-EU country) as of 1 February 2020. In particolare il debito pubblico di un paese non può superare il 60% del suo P.I.L. Sceptics note that the Treaty offers no legally actionable definition of subsidiarity. The Maastricht Treaty is of course the main example of a legally-binding agreement among privileged countries. Officially known as the Treaty on European Union, the Maastricht Treaty marked the beginning of ‘a new stage in the process of creating an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe’ by giving the previous communities a political dimension. Title II, Provisions Amending the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community, reformulates the EEC as the central "pillar" of the Union. "[24] Commonly known as the Maastricht Criteria,[25][26] these obligations represented the performance thresholds for member states to progress toward the third stage of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the adoption the common currency (designated at the 1995 Madrid European as the Euro).[27]. Tizzano Antonio. Beginning in 2009 with Greece, the governments of several Euro-zone countries (Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Cyprus) declared themselves unable to repay or refinance their government debt or to bail out over-indebted banks without assistance from third parties. This narrow vote for ratification in France, known at the time as the 'petite oui', led Jacques Delors to comment that "Europe began as an elitist project in which it was believed that all that was required was to convince the decision-makers. The treaties (primary legislation) are the basis or ground rules for all EU action. La firma arriva al termine dei negoziati. Save for Later. [19][20], Since being forced by speculation against the franc to abandon the centrepiece of his Socialist programme in 1983, a job creating reflation,[21] Mitterrand had been committed to drawing Germany into a currency partnership. Word index: 1-300, 301-600, 601-900, More. A.Strutture dell'Unione Con l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, il trattato di Maastricht ha segnato una nuova tappa nel processo volto a creare «un'unione sempre più stretta tra i popoli dell'Europa». Set along side the European Community, the cooperation proposed in the Maastricht Treaty on foreign and security policy, and on justice and home affairs, were characterised in official commentary as the second and third "pillars" of the Union. It confirms among its objectives are "the introduction of a citizenship of the Union" common to the nationals of the Member States; "economic and monetary union, ultimately including a single currency"; and "a common foreign and security policy including the eventual framing of a common defence".[3]. The "foundations of co-decision in the Maastricht Treaty" have led to the "trialogues" involving the European Parliament, Council and Commission, which have become standard legislative practice.[44]. Title VII, Final Provisions, covers a number of anomalous issues. Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis credited the Maastricht criteria with framing of a union of deflation and unemployment. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies This publication reproduces the text of the Treaty on European Union, as signed in Maastricht on 7 February 1992. Among its most prominent innovations, the treaty: provides the legal basis for 6 new EU common policies; safeguard the EU’s common values, fundamental interests and independence; strengthen the security of the EU and its member countries; preserve peace and international security in line with, develop and consolidate democracy and the. severe tensions for at least the last two years"; and. Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg. These criteria in turn dictated the mandate of the European System of Central Banks comprising the national central banks, but to include the prospective currency-issuing European Central Bank. [34], In ruling out any role for the future ECB and euro in national, or Union-coordinated, reflationary policies Maastricht affirmed what by the late 1980s was the general economic-policy orthodoxy within the Community. Dunkelste Stunden. The Treaty noted that it should be "ratified by the High Contracting Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional requirement". [6] In the cases of Denmark, France and Ireland this required referenda. [18] But when asked in 1990 by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to agree to German re-unification, French President François Mitterrand accepted only in the event Germany would abandon the Deutsche Mark and adopt a common currency. Introduction to the Jacques Delors Colloquium 1991: "Subsidiarity: the challenge of change" organised by the European Institute of Public Administration at Maastricht, 21 and 22 March 1991, p. 32. [15] The ERM was the centrepiece of the European Monetary System (EMS), set up on voluntary basis in 1978 to reduce the "barrier" that exchange-rate volatility presented for intra-Community commerce (and for the management of payments under the Common Agricultural Policy). In the wake of the Eurozone debt crisis unfolding from 2009, the most enduring reference to the Maastricht Treaty has been to the rules of compliance – the "Maastricht criteria" – for the currency union. [40] Yet it is clear that nothing is to be construed as systematically constraining the foreign or defence policies of the individual Member States. That phase of benign despotism is over. Officially known as the Treaty on European Union, the Maastricht Treaty marked the beginning of ‘a new stage in the process of creating an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe’ by giving the previous communities a political dimension. Annexed to the Treaty is a Protocol, and an Agreement, on Social Policy. With a view to ensuring that the dynamic of the European Single Market respect certain minimum social and employment protections, these allow the Council of Ministers to approve relevant proposals from the European Commission on the basis of a qualified majority rather than unanimous consent. Association Member: ILAB; Quantity available: 1. Die Dokumente zeigen: Frankreich hat das schnelle Ende der Mark erzwungen. trattato di maastricht 860. in vigore del trattato di lisbona 786. trattato di adesione 616. dal trattato di lisbona 563. progetto di trattato 428. trattato di non proliferazione 360. trattato di pace. Coordination in foreign and security policy had taken place since the beginning of the 1970s under the name of European Political Cooperation (EPC), which had been first written into the treaties by the 1987 Single European Act. 4. nominal long-term interest rates no more than 2 percentage points higher than in the three Member States with the lowest inflation. In base ai cosiddetti “parametri di Maastricht” (dal nome della città olandese in cui il 7 febbraio 1992 fu firmato il trattato istitutivo dell’Unione Europea), i Paesi che intendono adottare l’Euro come propria divisa, devono offrire delle garanzie su stabilità dei prezzi, situazione delle finanze pubbliche, tassi di interesse a lungo termine e tasso di cambio. Il trattato di Maastricht rappresenta una tappa determinante della costruzione europea. Secondary legislation – which includes regulations, directives and decisions – are derived from the principles and objectives set out in the treaties. Il Trattato di Maastricht introdusse anche il concetto di cittadinanza europea, di cui godono tutti coloro che possiedono la cittadinanza di uno Stato membro. This has been described as a "reversed Keynesianism": macro-economic policy not to secure a full-employment level of demand, but, through the restrictive control of monetary growth and public expenditure, to maintain price and financial market stability; micro economic policy, not to engineer income and price controls in support of fiscal expansion, but to encourage job creation by reducing barriers to lower labour costs. Prime Minister John Major was able to face down his "Maastricht Rebels" only by tying ratification to the survival of the government in a vote of confidence.[11]. Our main task is to maintain price stability in the euro area and so preserve the purchasing power of the single currency. [32] The commitment to monetary union and the convergence criteria denied member states the resort to currency deflation to ease balance-of-payments constraints on domestic spending, and left labour market "flexibility" as the only means of coping with asymmetric economic shocks. Title V and VI extend existing intergovernmental consultations on foreign-policy, security and defence matters, and on "cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs." [7], In the first Danish referendum, on 2 June 1992, the treaty was rejected by a margin of 50.7% to 49.3%. Although these were widely seen to presage a "federal Europe", the focus of constitutional debate shifted to the later 2007 Treaty of Lisbon. La parte finale del trattato di Maastricht "il vincolo del 3%" (self.SamueleDelPapa) submitted 1 hour ago by SamueleDelPapa. Advertising. [12] The Treaty built on the growing suggestion that there was a Community-wide basis for citizenship rights. The United Kingdom was not a party of the Agreement on Social Policy and secured an "opt out" from the protocol. Expansion plans may also be in jeopardy", "The Maastricht Debate: Major 'driven to confidence factor': Commons Exchanges: Treaty issue 'cannot fester any longer, 1990–1992: Britain and the politics of the European exchange rate mechanism, Conflicting Authorities: States, Currency Markets and the ERM Crisis of 1992–93, "A Practitioner's Guide to the Maastricht Treaty". This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website. There is a real "moral hazard" in allowing Member States to accumulate higher debts within the Eurozone – higher debts which, ultimately, have no relationship to higher growth. Il Trattato di Maastricht è stato firmato il 7 febbraio 1992, avviando il percorso verso l’unione politica e monetaria dei membri. I parametri di Maastricht o criteri di convergenza sono i requisiti economici e finanziari che gli Stati dell'Unione europea devono soddisfare per l'ingresso nell'Unione economica e monetaria dell'Unione europea (UEM). Il Trattato di Maastricht e la Comunità Europea Il Trattato di Maastricht, firmato il 7 Febbraio 1992 ed entrato in vigore il 1 Novembre 1993, è l' atto fondativo dell'Unione Europea. Expression index: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200, More. Weg ohne Wiederkehr. Il trattato ha inoltre istituito la Banca centrale europea (BCE) e il Sistema europeo di banche centrali, precisandone le finalità. The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the 19 European Union countries which have adopted the euro. – Der Kanzler öffnet die Akten über die deutsche Einheit. From Libreria Oreste Gozzini snc (Firenze, FI, Italy) AbeBooks Seller Since 01 October 2009 Seller Rating. In consequence of the Dutch Presidency of the Council of the European Communities during the previous six months of negotiation, the Treaty was signed in the Netherlands, in the city of Maastricht. It creates the European Union. Sterling's release from the ERM was then followed in the UK by an economic recovery and a significant fall in unemployment. Trattato che istituisce la Comunità europea (versione consolidata Nizza) - Parte terza: Politiche della Comunità - Titolo XIX: Ambiente - Articolo 174 - Articolo 130 R - Trattato CE (versione consolidata Maastricht) - Gazzetta ufficiale n. C 325 del 24/12/2002 pag. Under the name " Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union ", it remains one of the two most important treaties in what is … The new provisions called on governments to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]]",[39] but otherwise continued cooperation on the basis of intergovernmental liaison outside of the EC and its institutions. [22], Having "resolved to achieve the strengthening and the convergence and to establish an economic and monetary union including,... a single and stable currency",[23] the Treaty ruled that "Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern", and that the obligations assumed should be a matter for "mutual surveillance. Maastricht, Trattato di Trattato istitutivo dell’Unione Europea (UE). Il Trattato di Maastricht. Formally the Treaty on European Union, it announced "a new stage in the process of European integration"[1] chiefly in provisions for a shared European citizenship, for the eventual introduction of a single currency, and (with less precision) for common foreign and security policies. But in making it an explicit constitutional principle the Maastricht Treaty opened up "debates about whether this strengthened the states, regions or local government vis-à-vis the EU or vice versa". [41] This, in part, was a concession to United Kingdom which continued to insist on the sufficiency of the North Atlantic alliance (supported by the neutral, non-aligned, Member States, the Republic of Ireland and Austria, at the 1997 Amsterdam summit the UK prevented a merger of the WEU and the EU),[42][43]. L'Unione disponeva di un quadro istituzionale unico, composto dal Consiglio, dal Pa… Phone +39 0143 76669 Fax +39 0143 143 2230 posidonia@posidonia.com-----Posidonia contact/selling point in The Netherlands: Mr Armand Diets GSM +31(0)622450250 info@prohandbv.nl The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the twelve Member States of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). – Hinter der Fassade ihrer deutsch-französischen Freundschaft haben Helmut Kohl und François Mitterrand erbittert um Einheit und Euro gerungen, wie jetzt neue Dokumente aus dem Kanzleramt zeigen. 1992, dai rappresentanti dei governi dei 12 Paesi membri della CEE, entrò in vigore il 1° nov. 1993. 1-112). [36], Taking issue in defence of the Maastricht criteria, German finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble argued that "the old way to stimulate growth will not work." United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. Nel Trattato si fissano dei parametri per stabilire se un paese sia in grado di far parte dell’Unione economica e monetaria. This encompasses 3 separate strands (so-called pillars): cooperation between EU governments on justice and home affairs. [13] This common and parallel citizenship accords the Member State migrants not only the civil right to take up residence and employment, but also, and for the first time, political rights. Il trattato sull'Unione europea è stato firmato a Maastricht alla presenza del Presidente del Parlamento europeo, on. From the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1957, integrationists argued the free movement of workers was the logical corollary of the free movement of capital, goods and services and integral to the establishment of a common (and later single) European market. It was to do the same with respect to the obligation to enter the final, single-currency, stage of monetary union (the UK would not have to give up Pound sterling). trattato di maastricht trattato sull'unione europea gazzetta ufficiale n. c 191 del 29 luglio 1992 sua maestÀ il re dei belgi, sua maestÀ la regina di danimarca, il presidente della repubblica federale di germania, il presidente della repubblica ellenica, sua maestÀ il re di spagna, il …

Nomi Composti: Esercizi, Youtube Highlights Serie A Ultima Giornata, Suonerie Gratis 2020, Monte Gabberi Come Arrivare, Formazione Napoli 2013, Fifa 18 Ibrahimovic,